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To get minimal mark it is obligatory to prepare at list questions in bold

Medical students

Module №1

CYTOLOGY I

  1. Describe fluid-mosaic model of membrane

  2. Types of lipids in the membrane

  3. Role of cholesterol in the membrane

  4. Structure and functions of glycocalix

  5. Submembrane complex of a cell (components, functions)

  6. Mechanisms of micromolecular (transmembrane) transport

  7. Mechanisms of macromolecular (vesicular) transport

  8. Structure and functions of mitochondria

  9. Structure and functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  10. Structure and functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum

  11. Structure and functions of Golgi complex

  12. Structure and functions of lysosome, types of lysosomes

  13. Describe the process of autophagy, types of autophagy

  14. Structure and functions of ribosome

  15. Structure and functions of peroxisome

  16. Structure and functions of proteasome

  17. Cytoskeleton: its components and functions

  18. Structure and functions of microtubules

  19. Structure and functions of microfilaments

  20. Structure and functions of centrosome

  21. Structure and functions of intermediate filaments

  22. Classification of inclusions


CYTOLOGY II

  1. Structure of the nuclear envelope

  2. Structure and functions of nuclear pore

  3. Chromatin: definition, molecular composition, classification

  4. Structure of nucleosome, levels of DNA spatial packing

  5. Structure and functions of nucleolus

  6. Characterize each phase of the cell cycle

  7. Cell cycle regulation, checkpoints

  8. Characterize each phase of mitosis

  9. Define kinetochore, mitotic spindle, cytokinesis

  10. Define apoptosis, describe it’s advantages comparing with necrosis

  11. Characterize general apoptotic pathways


EMBRYOLOGY I

  1. Structure of spermatozoon

  2. Structure of human ovum, it’s envelopes

  3. Define reactions of distant interaction between gametes:

-negative rheotaxis

-positive chemotaxis

-capacitation

  1. Define reactions of contact interaction between gametes

-acrosomal reaction

-cortical reaction

  1. Define cleavage and it’s characteristics

  2. Describe the process of gametes fusion

  3. List subsequent stages of embryonic development starting from the zygote

  4. Describe the structure of a blastocyst

  5. Define implantation and it’s steps


EMBRYOLOGY II

  1. Define the process of gastrulation

  2. Describe general gastrulation mechanism in human embryo

  3. Describe derivatives (structures, organs) of embryonic ectoderm

  4. Describe the formation of the notochord, its role in embryonic development

  5. Describe the formation of body axes

  6. Define the process of neurulation

  7. Describe components of embryonic mesoderm and their derivatives

  8. Describe derivatives (structures, organs) of embryonic endoderm

  9. Structure and functions of amnion

  10. Structure and functions of yolk sack

  11. Structure and functions of allantois

Module №2

EPITHELIAL TISSUES

  1. General signs of epithelial tissues

  2. Structure and functions of basement membrane

  3. Structure and functions of microvilli

  4. Structure and functions of cilia

  5. Classification of covering (lining) epithelia (morpho-functional)

  6. Differences between exocrine and endocrine glands

  7. Structure of exocrine glands and their classification

  8. Describe different types of secretion (how cells release their products) with examples

  9. Structure and protein composition of desmosome, it’s function

  10. Structure and protein composition of gap junction, it’s function

  11. Structure and protein composition of tight junction, it’s function


BlOOD

  1. Hemogram (number of cells per one liter of blood), leukocyte formula (percentage of different types)

  2. Erythrocytes: structure (diameter, thickness, membrane proteins), functions

  3. Define poikilocytosis and anisocytosis

  4. Structure and function of hemoglobin (Hb), types of Hb depending on combination with different gases

  5. Differences between fetal and adult Hb

  6. Classification of leukocytes, their functions

  7. Structure and content of primary (azurophilic) granules

  8. Neutrophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, immature forms

  9. Define leukocyte formula left-shift and its clinical significance

  10. Eosinophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, content of specific granules

  11. Basophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, content of specific granules

  12. Lymphocytes: percentage in leukocyte formula, structural features and classification

  13. Monocytes: percentage in leukocyte formula, structural features and functions

  14. Platelets: structure and functions


HEMATOPOIESIS. RED BONE MARROW

  1. Brief characteristic of 6 classes of hematopoietic cells

  2. Describe subsequent stages of erythrocyte development from the stem cells

  3. Describe subsequent stages of granulocyte development from the stem cells

  4. Describe subsequent stages of monocyte development from the stem cells

  5. Describe subsequent stages of lymphocyte development from the stem cells

  6. Describe subsequent stages of platelet development from stem the cells

  7. Describe stromal and parenchymal cells of red bone marrow


PROPER CONNECTIVE TISSUE

  1. Classification of connective tissues

  2. List cells of connective tissue proper, for every cell name the function

  3. Describe different subtypes of fibroblasts, their structure, functions and derivation

  4. Describe derivation, structure and functions of macrophages. Define mononuclear phagocyte system.

  5. Describe derivation, structure and functions of mast cells (tissue basophils). List components of their secretory granules.

  6. Describe derivation, structure and functions of plasma cells.

  7. Types of connective tissue fibers and their properties

  8. Describe structure of collagen fibers. List general properties of collagen fibers.

  9. Describe steps of collagen fibers synthesis and degradation

  10. Describe molecular composition of reticular fibers and their localization.

  11. Describe structure of elastic fibers, their general properties.

  12. Composition of ground substance and structure of its main components: glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans.

  13. Compare structure, functions and distribution of white and brown adipose tissues.

  14. Describe structure and localization of reticular tissue.

  15. Describe structure and localization of mucus tissue.


CENTRAL LYMPHOID ORGANS

  1. Embryonic development of thymus

  2. General structure of the thymus

  3. Role of thymus in T-cells maturation

  4. Components of blood-thymus barrier and it’s significance

  5. Compare two types of thymus involution


PERIPHERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS

  1. Describe splenic system of blood supply (sequence of vessels) and its features

  2. General structure of the spleen

  3. Functions of human spleen

  4. Describe cellular composition of red pulp

  5. Describe zones of white pulp

  6. General structure of the lymph node

  7. Describe system of lymph nodes’ sinuses

  8. Describe structure of lymph node’s cortex, paracortex and medulla

  9. Functions of lymph node

Module №3

SKELETAL CONNECTIVE TISSUES

  1. Name 3 types of cartilage tissues with typical places of their localization

  2. Describe cells of cartilage tissue

  3. Define perichondrium, its structure and functions

  4. Describe composition of cartilage matrix

  5. Describe structure and key features of elastic cartilage

  6. Describe structure and key features of elastic cartilage

  7. Describe structure and key features of fibrocartilage

  8. Compare two types of cartilage growth

  9. Compare two types of bone tissues

  10. Describe composition of bone extracellular matrix

  11. Cells of bone tissue, their structure and function

  12. Describe derivation, structure and function of osteoclast cells, mechanism of bone resorption

  13. Describe structure of lamellar bone tissue, its morphofunctional unit

  14. Describe structure and functions of periosteum

  15. Describe stages of endochondral ossification

  16. Describe zones of epiphyseal plate

  17. Describe the process of intramembranous ossification


MUSCLE TISSUES

  1. Morpho-functional classification of muscle tissues (according to the structure)

  2. Histogenetic classification of muscle tissues (according to the source of embryonic development)

  3. Structure of the skeletal muscle as an organ

  4. Structure of the morphofunctional unit of the skeletal muscle

  5. Structure of the contractile system (myofibrils)

  6. Structure of the sarcomere

  7. Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction

  8. Sources and mechanisms of muscle fiber regeneration

  9. Key features of the cardiac muscle tissue

  10. Describe morhofunctional unit of cardiac muscle tissue

  11. Structure and function of intercalated discs

  12. Key features of the smooth muscle tissue

  13. Describe morhofunctional unit of smooth muscle tissue

  14. Mechanism of smooth muscle contraction


CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I. VESSELS

  1. Describe general structure of the vessel’s wall (three envelopes and layers of each envelope)

  2. Classification of arteries and veins

  3. Describe general features of elastic arteries structure

  4. Describe general features of muscular arteries structure

  5. Describe general features of veins structure

  6. Classification of capillaries. Describe structure of every type and organs, where we can find them

  7. Describe features of lymphatic capillaries and their function

  8. Classification of anastomoses


CIRCULATORY SYSTEM II. HEART

  1. Describe three envelopes of the human heart

  2. Classification of cardiomyocytes

  3. Histological structure of myocardium

  4. Describe the differences between conducting and contractile cardiomyocytes

  5. Components of the conducting system of the heart

  6. Embryonic development of the heart

Module №4

DIGESTIVE I (oral cavity)

  1. General structure of alimentary canal (layers, envelopes)

  2. Histological structure of the tongue (types of papillae, their structure and function)

  3. Structure of the taste bud, cellular composition, function

  4. Mechanism of taste sensation

  5. General structure of salivary glands (cells of terminal portion, types of ducts)

  6. Describe structure of parotid gland

  7. Describe structure of sublingual gland

  8. Describe structure of submandibular gland

  9. Compare three major salivary glands

  10. Structure of esophagus

  11. Structure of the pharynx

  12. Describe the structure of the Pirogov-Wadeyer lymphoid ring of the parynx, types of tonsils and its function


DIGESTIVE II (stomach, small, large intestines)

  1. Envelopes and layers of stomach, relief of stomach mucosa

  2. Describe 3 types of stomach glands and compare them one with another

  3. Cells of stomach glands (structure, staining properties, function)

  4. Describe the mechanism of HCl acid secretion, what receptors stimulate this process

  5. Describe enteroendocrine cells of digestive tract, their derivation, fuction and hormones

  6. Histological structure of the duodenum (envelopes, layers, relief)

  7. Differences between histological structure of duodenum and other parts of small intestine

  8. Cellular composition of small intestine epithelium(structure, staining properties, function)

  9. Describe lymphoid structures of intestinal mucosa and the role of M-cells in antigen processing

  10. Describe features of appendix histological structure

  11. Histological structure of the large intestine (envelopes, layers, relief)

  12. Histological features of anorectal junction


DIGESTIVE III (liver, pancreas, gall bladder)

  1. Functions of liver

  2. Ultrastructural characteristics of hepatocytes

  3. Describe morpho-functional units of liver (classic and portal lobules, acinus), mention the direction of blood and bile flow

  4. Features of liver blood supply (sequence of blood vessels)

  5. Structure of liver sinusoids

  6. Define space of Disse and cells, located there

  7. Histological structure of the gall bladder, its function

  8. Cellular composition of the islets of Langerhans (name the cell, respective hormone and its effect)

  9. Describe the structure of the pancreatic acinus (staining properties) and its function (secretory products)

  10. Describe pancreatic duct system

  11. Hormonal regulation of pancreatic juce secretion (particularly action of cholecyctokinin and secretin)


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  1. General difference between conducting and respiratory portions of respiratory system

  2. Structure of the olfactory epithelium, its location, regeneration and function

  3. Histological structure of larynx

  4. Histological structure of trachea

  5. Histological classification of bronchi tree

  6. Cellular composition of respiratory epithelium (structure and function of every cell)

  7. Describe mucocilliary clearance mechanism, its function

  8. Define lung acinus and name its components

  9. Components and function of blood-air barrier

  10. Cells of lung alveoli, their structure and function

  11. Composition of surfactant, its function

  12. Embryonic development of respiratory system, start point for surfactant secretion


SKIN

  1. Layers of the skin

  2. Layers of epidermis (describe differences between them)

  3. Cells of epidermis, their function and embryonic derivation

  4. Describe the process of melanin synthesis, key enzymes and the major function of this pigment

  5. Histological differences between thick and thin skin

  6. Histological differences between light and dark skin

  7. Histological structure of the dermis

  8. Sebaceous gland, structure, function, location

  9. Compare two types of sweat glands (cellular composition, function, location, innervation, age features)

  10. Types of hair, differences in histological structure

  11. Structure of the hair follicle

  12. Structure of the nails

Module №5

NERVE TISSUE

  1. Structure of the neuron

  2. Mechanisms of axonic transport

  3. Classification of neurons (morphological, functional)

  4. Structure and classification of synapses

  5. Classification of glial cells

  6. Subtypes of astrocytes, their functions

  7. Blood-brain barrier structure (components) and significance in clinical practice

  8. Structure and functions of oligodendrocytes

  9. Structure and functions of ependymal cells. Role of tanycytes in the embryonic development of the brain cortex

  10. Structure and classifications of nerve fibers

  11. Describe steps of nerve fibers regeneration


NERVOUS SYSTEM

  1. Describe differences between white and gray matter

  2. Layers of cerebral cortex, their cellular composition

  3. Layers of cerebellar cortex, their cellular composition, interactions between cells

  4. Describe histological structure of the spinal cord gray matter

  5. Describe histological structure of the spinal ganglion

  6. Embryonic development of the nervous system

EYE

  1. Name 3 envelopes of the eye and their constituents

  2. Name 5 layers of cornea and describe their structure

  3. Name 10 layers of the retina and describe their structure

  4. Describe ultrastructure of rods and cones highlighting differences between them

  5. Describe the mechanism of photoreception

  6. Describe functions of pigmented epithelium and describe “blood-retina barrier”

  7. Define the terms “Yellow spot” and “Blind spot” of retina. Describe structural features of each region.

  8. Define the term “Accommodation” and describe what structures of the eye are involved in this mechanism and how it is realized

  9. Define the terms “Anterior and Posterior chambers of the eye” and describe the mechanism of aqueous humor circulation in the eye

  10. Describe eye embryonic development


EAR

  1. Describe the function of the external ear and its constituents

  2. Describe the function of the middle ear and its constituents

  3. Describe parts of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, name receptor apparatus of each part and their main function.

  4. Describe cellular composition of the organ of Corti

  5. Describe the structure of hair cells (two types) and their protrusions

  6. Describe the structure of the cochlea

  7. Describe the mechanism of sounds perception and how we distinguish the frequency of different sound waves

  8. Describe histological structure of the Maculae with otolithic membrane and mechanism of its action

  9. Describe histological structure of the Cristae ampullares and mechanism of its action

  10. Describe embryonic development of the ear


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  1. Classification of endocrine organs. List central and peripheral organs, explain differences between them

  2. Mechanisms of hormone secretion regulation (negative feedback loop)

  3. Describe hypothalamic nuclei with endocrine function and hormones they produce

  4. Describe structure and function of neurohypophysis

  5. Describe classification of cells in adenohypophysis and respective hormones

  6. System of hypophyseal blood supply and its function in transport of hormones

  7. Embryonic development of pituitary gland

  8. Histological structure of the epiphysis, its cellular compositions and two main hormones. General function of the epiphysis.

  9. Describe histological structure of the thyroid gland, cells of the follicle and hormones they produce

  10. Describe secretory cycle of the thyrocyte

  11. Embryonic development of the thyroid gland

  12. Histological structure of the parathyroid gland and its hormones. Regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion

  13. Embryonic development of the parathyroid gland

  14. Zones of the adrenal cortex and respective hormones

  15. Cells of the adrenal medulla and respective hormones

  16. Embryonic development of the adrenal gland

  17. Define Dissociated neuroendocrine system and its function

Module №6

URINARY

  1. Functions of kidneys

  2. Histological structure of kidneys

  3. Describe features of kidney blood supply (sequence of vessels)

  4. Define the nephron, name its main parts and types of nephrons based on their location

  5. Describe the structure of the Bowman’s capsule

  6. Define the process of filtration

  7. Filtration barrier (components, functions)

  8. Mesangial cells (types, functions)

  9. Define the process of reabsorption and secretion

  10. Describe the structure and function of the nephron proximal convoluted tubules

  11. Describe the structure and function of the loop of Henle

  12. Describe the structure and function of the nephron distal convoluted tubules

  13. Describe the structure and function of the collecting ducts

  14. Hormonal regulation of reabsorption in collecting ducts

  15. Cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus, their location and functions

  16. Mechanism of renin action (how it regulated blood pressure)

  17. Structure of the ureter

  18. Structure of the urinary bladder

  19. Embryonic development of the urinary system


MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  1. Describe the sequence of seminiferous ducts

  2. Structure of convoluted seminiferous tubules

  3. Spermatogenesis (definition, stages, sequence of cells, duration)

  4. Spermiogenesis (definition, stages)

  5. Structure and function of Sertoli (sustentacular) cells

  6. Structure and function of Leydig (interstitial) cells

  7. Intratesticular ducts

  8. Histological structure and functions of the epididymis

  9. Differences between epithelial lining of efferent ductules and ductus epididymis

  10. Histological structure of the ductus deferens

  11. Histological structure of seminal vesicles

  12. Histological structure of prostate (classification of glands, age changes)

  13. Embryonic development of male reproductive system


FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  1. Histological structure of the ovary

  2. Types of follicles, differences between them, structure of the mature (Graafian) follicle

  3. Define the ovulation and describe the regulation of this process

  4. Define the yellow body and stages of its formation

  5. Ovogenesis (phases, time points)

  6. Histological structure of the uterus

  7. Histological structure of the uterine tube

  8. Phases of menstrual cycle (respective changes in the structure of the ovary, uterus and hormonal concentration)

  9. Histological structure of mammary gland

  10. Histological structure of the cervix

  11. Histological structure of the vagina

  12. Embryonic development of the female reproductive system

Stomatological students

Module №1

CYTOLOGY

  1. Describe fluid-mosaic model of membrane

  2. Structure and functions of glycocalix

  3. Structure and functions of mitochondria

  4. Structure and functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  5. Structure and functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum

  6. Structure and functions of Golgi complex

  7. Structure and functions of lysosome, types of lysosomes

  8. Structure and functions of ribosome

  9. Structure and functions of peroxisome

  10. Structure and functions of microtubules

  11. Structure and functions of microfilaments

  12. Structure and functions of centrosome

  13. Structure of the nuclear envelope

  14. Structure and functions of nuclear pore

  15. Chromatin: definition, molecular composition, classification

  16. Structure of nucleosome, levels of DNA spatial packing

  17. Structure and functions of nucleolus

  18. Characterize each phase of the cell cycle

  19. Characterize each phase of mitosis

  20. Define apoptosis, describe it’s advantages comparing with necrosis


Embryology I

  1. Structure of spermatozoon

  2. Structure of human ovum, it’s envelopes

  3. Define reactions of distant interaction between gametes:

-negative rheotaxis

-positive chemotaxis

-capacitation

  1. Define reactions of contact interaction between gametes

-acrosomal reaction

-cortical reaction

  1. Define cleavage and it’s characteristics

  2. List subsequent stages of embryonic development starting from the zygote

  3. Describe the structure of blastocyst

  4. Define implantation and it’s steps


Embryology II

  1. Define the process of gastrulation

  2. Describe the mechanism of immigration

  3. Describe derivatives (structures, organs) of embryonic ectoderm

  4. Describe components of embryonic mesoderm and their derivatives

  5. Describe derivatives (structures, organs) of embryonic endoderm

  6. Structure and functions of amnion

  7. Structure and functions of yolk sack

  8. Structure and functions of allantois


Epithelial tissues

  1. General signs of epithelial tissues

  2. Structure and functions of microvilli

  3. Structure and functions of cilia

  4. Classification of covering (lining) epithelia (morpho-functional)

  5. Differences between exocrine and endocrine glands

  6. Structure of exocrine glands and their classification

  7. Describe different types of secretion (how cells release their products) with examples

  8. Structure and function of desmosome

  9. Structure and function of gap junction

  10. Structure and function of of tight junction

Module №2

Blood

  1. Hemogram (number of cells per one liter of blood), leukocyte formula (percentage of different types)

  2. Erythrocytes: structure (diameter, thickness, membrane proteins), functions

  3. Structure and function of hemoglobin (Hb), types of Hb depending on combination with different gases

  4. Classification of leukocytes, their functions

  5. Neutrophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, immature forms

  6. Eosinophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, content of specific granules

  7. Basophils: percentage in leukocyte formula, structure, functions, content of specific granules

  8. Lymphocytes: percentage in leukocyte formula, structural features and classification

  9. Monocytes: percentage in leukocyte formula, structural features and functions

  10. Platelets: structure and functions


Hematopoiesis. Red bone marrow

  1. Brief characteristic of 6 classes of hematopoietic cells

  2. Describe subsequent stages of erythrocyte development from the stem cells

  3. Describe subsequent stages of granulocyte development from the stem cells

  4. Describe subsequent stages of monocyte development from the stem cells

  5. Describe subsequent stages of lymphocyte development from the stem cells

  6. Describe subsequent stages of platelet development from stem the cells

7. Describe stromal and parenchymal cells of red bone marrow


Proper connective tissue

  1. Classification of connective tissues

  2. List cells of connective tissue proper, for every cell name the function

  3. Describe different subtypes of fibroblasts, their structure, functions and derivation

  4. Describe derivation, structure and functions of macrophages. Define mononuclear phagocyte system.

  5. Describe derivation, structure and functions of mast cells (tissue basophils). List components of their secretory granules.

  6. Describe derivation, structure and functions of plasma cells.

  7. Types of connective tissue fibers and their properties

  8. Describe structure of collagen fibers. General properties of collagen fibers.

  9. Describe molecular composition of reticular fibers and their localization.

  10. Describe structure of elastic fibers, their general properties.

  11. Composition of ground substance and structure of its main components: glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans.

  12. Compare structure, functions and distribution of white and brown adipose tissues.

  13. Describe structure and localization of reticular tissue.


Lymphoid organs

  1. Describe structure and function of the thymus

  2. Components of blood-thymus barrier and it’s significance

  3. Structure and function of the spleen

  4. Describe splenic system of blood supply (sequence of vessels) and its features

  5. Describe zones of a white pulp

  6. Structure and function of the lymph node

  7. Describe system of lymph nodes’ sinuses


Cartilage tissues

1. Name 3 types of cartilage tissues with typical places of their localization

2. Describe cells of cartilage tissue

3. Define perichondrium, its structure and functions

4. Describe composition of cartilage extracellular matrix

5. Describe structure and key features of hyaline cartilage

6. Describe structure and key features of elastic cartilage

7. Describe structure and key features of fibrocartilage

8. Compare two types of cartilage growth


Bone tissue

1. Compare two types of bone tissues

2. Describe composition of bone extracellular matrix

3. Cells of bone tissue, their structure and function

4. Describe structure of lamellar bone tissue, its morphofunctional unit

5. Describe intramembranous ossification
6. Describe endochondral ossification mechanism

7. Describe zones of epiphiseal plate


Module №3

Muscle tissues

  1. Morpho-functional classification of muscle tissues (according to the structure)

  2. Structure of the morphofunctional unit of the skeletal muscle

  3. Structure of the contractile system (myofibrils)

  4. Structure of the sarcomere

  5. Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction

  6. Key features of the cardiac muscle tissue

  7. Describe morhofunctional unit of cardiac muscle tissue

  8. Structure and function of intercalated discs

  9. Key features of the smooth muscle tissue

  10. Describe morhofunctional unit of smooth muscle tissue

  11. Mechanism of smooth muscle contraction


Circulatory system. Vessels

  1. Describe general structure of the vessel’s wall (three envelopes and layers of each envelope)

  2. Classification of arteries and veins

  3. Describe general features of elastic arteries structure

  4. Describe general features of muscular arteries structure

  5. Describe general features of veins structure

  6. Classification of capillaries. Describe structure of every type and organs, where we can find them


Circulatory system. Heart

  1. Describe three envelopes of the human heart. Name layers of endocardium

  2. Classification of cardiomyocytes

  3. Histological structure of myocardium

  4. Describe the differences between conducting and contractile cardiomyocytes

  5. Components of the conducting system of the heart


NERVE TISSUE

  1. Structure of the neuron

  2. Classification of neurons (morphological, functional)

  3. Structure and classification of synapses

  4. Classification of glial cells

  5. Subtypes of astrocytes, their functions

  6. Blood-brain barrier structure (components) and significance in clinical practice

  7. Structure and functions of oligodendrocytes

  8. Structure and functions of ependymal cells.

  9. Structure and classifications of nerve fibers


NERVOUS SYSTEM

  1. Describe differences between white and gray matter

  2. Layers of cerebral cortex, their cellular composition

  3. Layers of cerebellar cortex, their cellular composition, interactions between cells

  4. Describe histological structure of the spinal cord gray matter

  5. Describe histological structure of the spinal ganglion


Module №4

SKIN

  1. Layers of epidermis (describe differences between them)

  2. Cells of epidermis, their function and embryonic derivation

  3. Histological differences between thick and thin skin

  4. Histological structure of the dermis

  5. Sebaceous gland, structure, function, location

  6. Compare two types of sweat glands (cellular composition, function, location, innervation, age features)


SENSORY SYSTEMS

  1. Name 3 envelopes of the eye and their constituents

  2. Name 10 layers of the retina and describe their structure

  3. Describe ultrastructure of rods and cones highlighting differences between them

  4. Define the terms “Yellow spot” and “Blind spot” of retina. Describe structural features of each region.

  5. Define the term “Accommodation” and describe what structures of the eye are involved in this mechanism and how it is realized

  6. Describe parts of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, name receptor apparatus of each part and their main function.

  7. Describe cellular composition of the organ of Corti

  8. Describe the structure of hair cells (two types) and their protrusions

  9. Describe the mechanism of sounds perception


ENDOCRINE ORGANS

  1. Classification of endocrine organs. List central and peripheral organs, explain differences between them

  2. Mechanisms of hormone secretion regulation (negative feedback loop)

  3. Describe hypothalamic nuclei with endocrine function and hormones they produce

  4. Describe structure and function of neurohypophysis

  5. Describe classification of cells in adenohypophysis and respective hormones

  6. System of hypophyseal blood supply and its function in hormones transport

  7. Describe histological structure of the thyroid gland, cells of the follicle and hormones they produce

  1. Histological structure of the parathyroid gland and its hormones

  2. Zones of the adrenal cortex and respective hormones

  3. Cells of the adrenal medulla and respective hormones


Module №5

Oral cavity

  1. General structure of the digestive system (envelopes, layers)

  2. Histological structure of a lip

  3. Histological structure of a cheek

  4. Histological structure of a hard palate

  5. Histological structure of a soft palate

  6. Histological structure of a tongue

  7. Types of tongue papillae, their structure

  8. Cellular composition of a taste bud


Salivary glands

  1. General structure of the salivary gland (cells of a terminal portion, types of acini, types of ducts)

  2. Compare structure and functions of serous and mucus cells

  3. Describe types of salivary ducts, their epithelial lining and function

  4. Describe histological structure of a parotid gland

  5. Describe histological structure of a sublingual gland

  6. Describe histological structure of a submandibular gland

  7. Describe the differences between three major salivary glands


Structure of a tooth

  1. General structure of a tooth (anatomical parts, tissues)

  2. Enamel: chemical composition, structure. Explain the nature of Retzius an Schreger lines

  3. Enamel cuticle (Nasmyth's membrane) and pellicle - definitions

  4. Dentin: chemical composition, structure. Differences between mantle and circumpulpal dentin (particularly fibers orientation).

  5. Differences between primary, secondary and tertiary dentin. Denticles – definition.

  6. Predentin – definition, location.

  7. Define the interglobular dentin and Tomes' granular layer, where these layers are located?

  8. Describe the difference between tubular and intertubular dentin.

  9. Cement: chemical composition, structure. Two types of a cement. Cells of a cement.

  10. Pulp: histological structures and zones.


Structures associated with a tooth

  1. List structures, associated with a tooth

  2. Structure and function of a periodontal ligament (particularly types of fibers), features of its vascularization and innervation.

  3. Epithelial rests of Malasse: their derivation and function.

  4. Alveolar bone histological structure

  5. Histological structure of a gingiva

Tooth development

  1. Describe stages of tooth development

  2. Describe histological structure of bell stage of tooth development, name the derivative of every component

  3. Describe dentinogenesis and major source of odontoblasts development

  4. Describe stages of amelogenesis and major source of ameloblasts development (which part of enamel organ)

  5. Describe cementogenesis and major sources of cementocytes development

  6. Define the cervical loop and its role in odontogenesis

  7. Define the Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath and its role in tooth development

  8. Types of stem cells found in the tooth

DIGESTIVE II

  1. Envelopes and layers of esophagus

  2. Envelopes and layers of stomach, relief of stomach mucosa

  3. Describe 3 types of stomach glands and compare them one with another

  4. Cells of stomach glands (structure, staining properties, function)

  5. Histological structure of the duodenum (envelopes, layers, relief)

  6. Differences between histological structure of duodenum and other parts of small intestine

  7. Cellular composition of small intestine epithelium (structure, staining properties, function)

  8. Describe features of appendix histological structure

  9. Histological structure of the large intestine (envelopes, layers, relief)

DIGESTIVE III

  1. Functions of liver

  2. Ultrastructural characteristics of hepatocytes

  3. Describe morpho-functional units of liver (classic and portal lobules, acinus), mention the direction of blood and bile flow

  4. Features of liver blood supply (sequence of blood vessels)

  5. Structure of liver sinusoids

  6. Define space of Disse and cells, located there

  7. Histological structure of the gall bladder, its function

  8. Cellular composition of the islets of Langerhans (name the cell, respective hormone and its effect)

  9. Describe the structure of the pancreatic acinus (staining properties) and its function (secretory products)

Module №6

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  1. Components of conducting and respiratory portion of respiratory system

  2. Histological structure of trachea

  3. Histological classification of bronchi tree

  4. Cellular composition of respiratory epithelium (structure and function of every cell)

  5. Define lung acinus and name its components

  6. Components and function of blood-air barrier

  7. Cells of lung alveoli, their structure and function

  8. Composition of surfactant, its function

URINARY SYSTEM

  1. Functions of kidneys

  2. Kidney blood supply (sequence of vessels)

  3. Define the nephron, name its main parts and types of nephrons based on their location

  4. Describe the structure of the Bowman’s capsule

  5. Define the process of filtration

  6. Filtration barrier (components, functions)

  7. Mesangial cells (types, functions)

  8. Define the process of reabsorption and secretion

  9. Cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus, their location and functions

  10. Structure of the urinary bladder

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  1. Describe the sequence of seminiferous ducts

  2. Structure of convoluted seminiferous tubules

  3. Spermatogenesis (definition, stages, sequence of cells, duration)

  4. Spermiogenesis (definition, stages)

  5. Structure and function of Sertoli (sustentacular) cells

  6. Structure and function of Leydig (interstitial) cells

  7. Histological structure and functions of the epididymis

  8. Histological structure of prostate (classification of glands, age changes)


FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  1. Histological structure of the ovary

  2. Types of follicles, differences between them, structure of the mature (Graafian) follicle

  3. Define the ovulation and describe the regulation of this process

  4. Define the yellow body and stages of its formation

  5. Oogenesis (phases, time points)

  6. Histological structure of the uterus

  7. Histological structure of the uterine tube

  8. Phases of menstrual cycle (respective changes in the structure of the ovary, uterus and hormonal concentration)